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A child’s deciduous teeth are generally whiter than the adult teeth that follow. As a person ages, the adult teeth often become darker due to changes in the mineral structure of the tooth, as the enamel becomes less porous and phosphate-deficient. Teeth can become stained by bacterial pigments, food – goods and vegetables rich with carotenoids or xanthonoids. Certain antibacterial medications (like tetracycline) can cause teeth stains or a reduction in the brilliance of the enamel. Ingesting colored liquids like coffee, tea, and red wine can discolor teeth.
- Enamel hypoplasia
- Age of the tooth: the teeth become more yellow or opaque and generally have a darker hue, usually after 50.
- Tobacco (tar)
- Wine and cola drinks consumed in excess
- Other foods and oral tobacco products with strong content of pigments
- Chlorhexidine (chemical bactericidal and bacteriostatic used as antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpaste for the treatment of gingivitis and halitosis ). Chlorhexidine does not stain the teeth, it destroys the bacteria in the plaque, allowing other staining agents to discolor the accumulation if the plaque is not removed.
Alveolar osteitis is the inflammation of the alveolar bone (i.e., the alveolar process of the maxilla or mandible). Classically, this occurs as a postoperative complication of tooth extraction.
Alveolar osteitis usually occurs where the blood clot fails to form or is lost from the socket (i.e., the defect left in the gum when a tooth is taken out). This leaves an empty socket where the bone is exposed to the oral cavity, causing a localized alveolar osteitis limited to the lamina dura (i.e., the bone which lines the socket). This specific type of alveolar osteitis is also known as dry socket or, less commonly, fibrinolytic alveolitis, and is associated with increased pain and delayed healing time.
Dry socket occurs in about 0.5–5% of routine dental extractions, and in about 25–30% of extractions of impacted wisdom teeth which are buried in the bone.
Xerostomia (also termed dry mouth as a symptom or dry mouth syndrome as a syndrome) is dryness in the mouth (xero- + stom- + -ia), which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva or reduced salivary flow (hyposalivation) or have no identifiable cause.
This symptom is very common and is often seen as a side effect of many types of medication. It is more common in older people (mostly because this group tends to take several medications) and in persons who breathe through their mouths (mouthbreathing). Dehydration, radiotherapy involving the salivary glands, and several diseases can cause hyposalivation or a change in saliva consistency and hence, a complaint of xerostomia.
Burning Mouth Syndrome
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS also termed glossodynia, orodynia, oral dysaesthesia, glossopyrosis, stomatodynia, burning tongue, stomatopyrosis, sore tongue, burning tongue syndrome, burning mouth, or sore mouth) is the complaint of a burning sensation in the mouth where no underlying dental or medical cause can be identified and no oral signs are found. Burning mouth syndrome may also comprise subjective xerostomia (a dry mouth sensation where no cause can be found such as hyposalivation), oral paraesthesia (e.g. tingling) and altered taste or smell (dysgeusia and dysosmia). A burning sensation in the mouth can be a symptom of another disease when local or systemic factors are found to be implicated, and this is not considered to be burning mouth syndrome.
Other Dental-Associated Treatments:
- Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMJ)
- Angular Chelitis/Angular Chelosis
- Oral Lichen Planus
- Thrush (Oral Candida)
- Alcohol-Free Chlorhexidine
- Anti-Gag Reflex
- Mouth Ulcers
- Root Canal
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