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The endocrine system is a group of glands distributed throughout the human body. This group of glands secretes substances called hormones. These hormones are dumping into the bloodstream (Shier, Butler &ump; Lewis, 2009). The endocrine system does not have a single anatomic location. It is dispersed throughout the human body. The final purpose of this process is to control, regulate, and coordinate the functioning of the human body. Some body functions can be activated or inhibited by hormones, which are secreted in very small quantities. The hormone related diseases may be due to hyper secretion, or a hypo secretion. The hormones secreted by the endocrine glands regulate growth, development and function of many tissues, and coordinate the body’s metabolic processes. An inadequate secretion of hormones may cause disorders in the body, which on occasion result in serious health consequences.
The majors endocrine glands are the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus gland, and reproductive glands (Shier et al., 2009). The pituitary gland is situated at the base of the brain. Through hormones secreted by it, controls the operation of major endocrine glands like thyroid, adrenals, reproductive glands and body growth, then an anomaly in capacity of pituitary gland show symptoms that result from a lack of secreted hormones that normally stimulate. In reaction to excess or deficiency of pituitary hormones, the glands affected by these hormones can cause an excess or a deficiency of their own hormones.. On the other hand pituitary gland acts on the stimulation of the thyroid gland to secrete hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism, energy, and nervous system activity.
The thyroid is a small gland in the neck, in front of the trachea below the larynx. Thyroid hormones control metabolism, which is the body’s ability to break down food and store it for energy, and convert food waste products, releasing energy in the process. Hyperthyroidism (too much hormone) may result Grave’s disease. Symptoms include anxiety, rapid heart rate, diarrhea and weight loss, nervousness, anxiety, and irritability.
The parathyroid glands are located in front of the base of the neck around the thyroid gland and secrete parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone regulates blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. This hormone (parathyroid hormone) affects the bones, kidney, and intestine (Shier et al., 2009).
Adrenal glands are endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys (Shier et al., 2009). The adrenal glands secrete hormones that increase heart rate, the force of cardiac muscle contraction, breathing rate, elevate blood pressure and blood glucose level. This activity prepares the body foe energy expending action, sometimes called fight or flight responses (Shier et al., 2009).
According to Shier, Butler &ump; Lewis (2009) “other glands that produce hormones and thus are parts of the endocrine system include the pineal gland and the thymus gland”. Shier et al., 2009 argued the pineal gland, located deep between the cerebral hemispheres, secretes hormone melatonin that acts on certain brain regions that function as a biological clock. The changing levels of melatonin across 24 hours enable the body to know when day is and when is night.
The reproductive glands (ovaries and testes), ovaries in female, just above the fallopian tubes are oval shaped and located in the pelvic area. They produce important hormones like estrogens and progesterone, which help in the development of feminine characteristics and pregnancy. (Shier et al., 2009)
The testes are located in in male in the scrotum, they produce testosterone and this allows for a male to change his voice, growth of hair and muscles and you can see the change in males because of the sexual activity stimulation.
The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach that helps the body maintains healthy blood sugar levels (glucose) levels. The pancreas secretes insulin, a hormone that helps move glucose from the blood into cells where it is used for energy. The pancreas also secretes glucagon when blood sugar is low. Glucagon tells the liver to send glucose into the bloodstream, which is stored in the liver as glycogen.
Diabetes, an imbalance in levels of blood sugar, is the primary disorder of the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (Type 1) or the body is resistant to insulin in the blood (Type 2). Without enough insulin to get glucose to flow through the metabolic process, glucose levels in the bloodstream rise too.
In Type 1 diabetes, the patient must take insulin shots, in diabetes Type 2 may be that the patient does not need insulin, and can sometimes control the levels of blood sugar with exercise, diet and other medications.
During the course of activities of daily living a person that suffers any illness related to the endocrine system can be affected significantly in many ADL’s like dressing. This ADL is impacted on what you wear because of the need to wear a device that brings a balance to the person’s life, why is this? a person that suffers from diabetes, the pancreas is not producing the necessary insulin. Bowel and bladder management is an area affected due to constant urination when a person takes a diuretic to eliminate water from the kidneys to allow normal function. Many body functions can be affected by the endocrine system, in the sensory function and pain long term damage can be observed in the eyes (Shier et al., 2009). The organ before mentioned when impacted can lead loss of eyesight. Body structures are very complex but important to mention because for example the eyes, if a person due to diabetes loses their eyesight a therapist would be very involved in retraining this person on their daily activities. Other areas that can be mentioned are performance skills &ump; patterns, context &ump; environment and activity demands. All these remaining aspects are significantly impacted because of need to follow a routine that will enable the person to integrate to society by creating a balance in their life to be able to participate in activities whether social or physical in nature. A person can be physically and emotionally disabled if their thyroid gland is not stable due to the complexity of the areas it regulates like growth, development and nervous system. There are many areas of occupation that can enhance the endocrine’s health and wellbeing like personal device care. If a person wears a device that administers medication to their body to regulate a body function this can allow for a normal lifestyle to include social interaction, preparing meals and exercising, etc. Creating good habits will allow for normal function of many endocrine system organs and the proper release of hormones that have positive effects on many organs, metabolic rate, blood vessels, etc. When discussing the performance skills we take into consideration how they are affected
The body system negatively can be affected across the lifespan. During stages of Development childhood and adolescence, the growth hormone is secreted by pituitary gland. The human body needs this hormone to normal growth after birth. A deficiency of this hormone during this period of life would cause an abnormal growth. During this period, the gonadal hormones affect sexual maturation, especially during adolescence. Another important hormone during childhood and adolescence stages of development is the insulin. A decrease of insulin leads in deficiency protein synthesis, which is very important during all stage of life, but especially during growth. In adulthood and older adulthood the endocrine system undergoes a gradual failure. Haywood &ump; Getchell, 2009, suggests that over time the endocrine system, immune system and nervous system fail to function gradually. This gradual failure might occur at different moments, leading to imbalances between them, and them increase risk of diseases at older people Thyroid function decline with aging and thyroid disorders are more common in older adults. Hypothyroidism is associated with acceleration of aging (Haywood &ump; Getchell, 2009).Leave a reply →